2017年前两个月观鸟小记

观鸟之后,对周围细小的声音,微小的运动都开始很注意。虽然林鸟仍然不是我的重点,但是从家走到地铁站的路上,偶尔看到或者听到常年的鸟,也是一种很好的练习。

一月是各种在本地越冬候鸟的季节。海边的浅滩里乍一看并没有多少动静,但是如果在岸边多站一会,就能够意识到有不少活物,这些鸟的冬羽与周围环境融合得恰到好处,像redshank夏天明亮的腿的颜色到了冬天也黯淡了起来。虽然Oystercatcher一年四季颜色都很显眼,尤其是胡萝卜颜色的长嘴和跟喝醉了酒似的通红的眼睛,但是在海边的环境里,不仔细看仍然会看不到。其它常见的还有black-tailed godwig,western curlew,turnstone和各种海鸥。

更北部的海岸,今年冬天出现了一直Alaska diver,一度登上了bird alert的头条。O君和朋友观鸟的时候有幸看到,我则只是从照片里见到。这迷鸟是怎么从太平洋跑道大西洋这来的,大概是每个人都感兴趣的问题。 到了二月份的时候,就失去了它的踪影了。

二月份是在立春前更加冷的一段时间。本地渔船集中的港口和售卖中心常年聚集着一代又一代的鸥类,包括银鸥,黑背鸥,红嘴鸥,还有鱼鹰和一些stone dove。但是每年都会有几只Icelandic gull和glaucous gull混杂在这群银鸥里。这两种鸥与其它鸥最大的区别是没有黑色的尾羽和翅膀尖。而Icelandic gull越年长就越是通体白色,覆有淡淡的褐点。拿着望远镜在屋顶上一只一只查看,总算发现了一直icelandic gull,一看到就知道一定是它,与银鸥的颜色非常不同,但是体型类似。

冬季另外一个本地传说是一只海东青从驯养人那里逃脱了,最近三个月都在五公里以内的海岸边出没,还带着环。带环一事我不是很确定,如果是环志的环应该不那么容易看到,如果是驯养时候留下的,那对它的捕食还是有一定影响。本地传说基本是真的,只是我跟O君都没有看到过,颇有点可惜。

观鸟囧事

  1. 我和O君一大早去了丽江黑龙潭公园想要观鸟。公园入口不远有个水潭。水潭边早上有一波老头老太太在锻炼身体,收音机的声音开得非常大,音箱也不好,滋滋啦啦的声音惊扰了早上的宁静。我们很无奈,只能拿着望远镜在水潭随意搜索,没想到找到一直普通翠鸟在潭边淡定地蹲着,头一伸一缩,视人群为无物。过往的行人游客可能觉得莫名其妙。
  2. 仍然是黑龙潭公园,后山。林子像是人工林,稀稀疏疏的,里面还夹杂着些旧的坟墓。忽然我们听到了很有节奏的很婉转的声音,像是电台播放的报时广播,但又像是鸟叫。以为是广播但是时断时续,以为是鸟叫但声调一直都没有什么变化。声音从很远地方发出来的,于是我们决定寻声去找。穿过树林,穿过山丘,走进村庄,沿着村里的路一直走,在一处黄土堆成的平台边有一棵大杨树,声音是从上面发出的。我们在树下看了半天也没找到鸟在哪,与此同时这只鸟还在若无其事地叫着。O君认为是黄鹂,我表示怀疑,但始终看不到,最后只能放弃。
  3. 我领着晖去一个自然保护区观鸟,晖是第一次观鸟,途中跟她介绍了我知道的看到的鸟类。在一个小溪处,一只普通翠鸟急速飞过,翠绿的翅膀在阳光下闪闪发光。后来在一处浅滩,几只小白鹭陆续起飞。她说,这可真是“一行白鹭上青天”。我说,刚刚看到那个翠鸟,就是”“两只黄鹂鸣翠鸟”的那个“翠鸟”。她说,是“两只黄鹂鸣翠柳”吧。

(五)瞭望塔

保护站外有一座瞭望塔。水泥底座,连上粗细不等的金属杆焊起来的架子,再焊上金属片做成的平台和阶梯,就成了可供眺望的高台了。瞭望塔有两三层楼那么高,没有避风的棚子,并且一些阶梯还有些摇摇晃晃,踩上去颇惊险。我第一次战战兢兢地爬上去,冷风马上灌满全身,才知道寒风刺骨的滋味。

天气晴好的时候,能见度很好,虽然在平地上感觉暖洋洋的,但哪怕登上瞭望塔第一层,风仍然刺骨,到了第二层,人就会被吹得轻飘飘的,感觉一不小心就要乘风而去了。站在高处,四周的景色一览无遗。近处的几栋房子,一望无际的金黄色的芦苇地,育苇场的场部和未建好的居民楼。当然,还有鸟。

天气晴朗的上午,我和O君爬上的瞭望塔观鸟。我们用单筒望远镜观察东西南北四个方向,我们相继看到了丹顶鹤,白枕鹤,苍鹭,草鹭,各种鸭子。我在一旁边记录边往空中望,O君则在望远镜辨认一些鸟类。正在这时,两只东方白鹭徐徐地出现在天空中。不知道它们是从哪里来,不知道它们要往哪里去,它们在空中缓缓地翱翔。它们在一起,它们的翅膀不时地互相掠过,动作也及其一致,像是在空中舞蹈,优雅而又迅速。我们一直望着它们,没有说一句话。它们继续缓缓滑翔着,消失在远处的树林里。

IMG_8908

田地里的白枕鹤在短短的几天中一直出现在同一个地方,我们每次出去,都能够见到它们。

IMG_8947

 

(四)三公里外的东方白鹳

保护站周围几十公里内都是草甸,没有一丝山岭起伏。从保护站附近的瞭望塔往周围望,可以看到一丛一丛的树木分散在甸子上,没有树木的地方,一望无际的金黄色的芦苇一直延伸到天边。阳光反射的时候,还能看到若隐若现的泡子。

草甸中央的几个点,有些突兀地树立着几个金属架子。架子上方成碗状,碗下面直直的一根金属管插在地里。这几个金属架子是保护站做的招引巢,用来招引东方白鹳做窝。我们知道保护站往北三公里处有一个招引巢,里面可能有东方白鹳。于是在保护站的第二天,决定往招引巢的方向走。

早上吃完饭收拾好已经是早上八点多了,我们沿着站前的一条小路开始步行。小路是由两边挖水沟,挖出的泥堆成的。每隔一段距离,就建一座桥,桥下有管道疏通水流,不至于一边的水过多。两边的芦苇地里,未被收割的芦苇在风中摇曳,很多大麻藏身其中。我们知道有很多是因为一路上每隔不远,都能听到它们的booming的叫声,叫声像是慢悠悠的打鼓声,又像是牛叫。当地人叫它们“老牛哞”。已经收割的芦苇田,远远望去像是干了的草坪,但鸭子落入收割的芦苇田后却完全消失不见,我们才意识到下面是有水的。它们非常善于隐藏和伪装,隐身在田里只要一动不动非常难发现。

在此起彼伏的大麻叫声中,我们听到了一些类似“啾啾”的声音,我只是惊鸿一瞥地看到其中的一只窜入芦苇丛中。明明能听到很近的叫声,但怎么也看不到了。我只有先把叫声录下来。后来又听到了同样的叫声并且看到了它们,才确定是震旦鸦雀。这已经是一天之后了。

走的路上,不时地有当地农户的车经过。我们一副全副武装的样子,经常被盯着看。还有农户看我们走得缓慢,作手势让我们上车载我们一程,我们摆手谢绝了。O君是Mr Friendly的样子,每辆过去的车他都会招手致意,久而久之,农户也开始跟他回礼。渐渐地,我都有些错觉他已经跟本地融为一体了。

路两边的小河沟里有不少渔网,一个农户船上了连体的胶鞋,小心翼翼地破开冰面把他放下的渔网捞出来。天气已经开始转暖,但每晚水面还是会冻上一层薄冰,白天的时候又划开。他先用一根棍子把冰面戳破,然后迈出一步,站稳之后另一条腿缓缓地往冰面上施力,水面裂开之后他才探脚站稳。就这样一步一步,走到他的渔网旁边,捞起绿色的网。我没有看到很多鱼,怀疑捞到的鱼也是很小的鱼。后来的一天晚上,我们的厨师做了一盘鱼,都是些指头长的鱼,他说是开春后当地人在甸子里捞到的。我们尝试吃了几条,实在是不知怎么吃,只好放弃。

我们边走边记录,走得很慢。最常见的是乌鸦和喜鹊,最常听到的是大麻鳽。短短的三公里,看到了丹顶鹤,沼鹞,斑嘴鸭,震旦攀雀这些在英国见不到的鸟。十一点多的时候,走到了招引巢附近,但却没有看到东方白鹳的影子。我们把望远镜架起,往周围眺望。一只草鹭在甸子中央一动不动,紫色的脖子在阳光下格外地显眼。苍鹭在英国和在这里都经常见到,草鹭还是第二次见到,我端详了很久。太阳已经升得很高,照得甸子上热气蒸腾,我们知道有很多鸭子隐身在甸子里,只是它们非常容易受惊吓,一点响动都会往甸子里飞,在望远镜里只能看到黑色的剪影,很难辨认。

Updates and Summary of the Crane fundraising project

19 November, 2014 Updates

This crowed funding project has raised 140,000 CNY and £250. Altogether it is roughly about 142,300 CNY. There is 4875 CNY donation.

The fundraising has reached its goal. All the money will be used to buy the lease.

Summary

  1. The wetland area belongs to a paper mill factory. The factory is the freeholder. The freeholder has already postponed the due day for purchase the lease to 20th November 2014. Mr Fu and the paper mill factory have agreed that as long as there is enough money, Mr Fu can buy the lease immediately.
  2. The wetland is neither protected nor belong to Zhalong Nature reserve. The use of the land is typically for paper mill factory and local fishermen. In winter, people harvest the reeds to make paper; after winter, local fishermen usually fishing in this area, which is coincide with cranes’ breeding season.
  3. The idea of buying the lease is allow Mr Fu legitimately forbidden people from egg-picking. Otherwise, there is no reason to stop loca and non-local people entering this area and picking eggs. Although picking wild animals’ egg are illegal in China, there are very few enforcements.
  4. Mr Fu and Nature University, as well as volunteers have difficulty in gathering evidence for egg-picking individuals. There are also non-local businessmen buying eggs in this area, for the purpose of breeding for animal performance, or eating. Nature University are trying to educate local villagers about environmental issues, and promoting eco-tourism in this area. They are also collecting evidence and reporting to the police for egg-picking.
  5. Mr Fu works in a Forest Protecting Station, yet probably bad managed. During the experiment last year, with his own money, Mr Fu hired some people to range part of the wetland that belongs to his lease. Only one red-crown crane family successfully bred on chick. There was one camera trap installed next to a oriental stork nest. Because of worrying about stolen, there are no other camera trap in any breeding pair.
  6. The approach in protecting cranes from Nature University and Mr Fu is protect cranes’s natural habitat and make sure they are successfully breeding in the wild environment; while Zhalong Nature Reserve chose a kept breeding approach: hatching eggs and raising crane chicks in a human environment, keeping them in a man made area to make sure they are away from their nature enemy.
  7. There are problems in many nature reserves in China. The high light problem is animal performance. For example, in nature reserve, kept red-crown cranes do flying performances three times a day in Zhalong Nature reserve. The source of these cranes are unclear.

Campaign for 28 Red Crown Crane families and their wetland, DEADLINE 15 November 2014

crane types

Cranes of the World: African Crowned Crane, Demoiselle Crane, Hooded Crane, Black Crowned Crane, Blue Crane, Black Naped Crane, Sandhill Crane, Common Crane, white necked Crane, Brolga Crane, Whooping Crane, Red Crowned Crane, Siberian Crane, Wattled Crane, Sarus Crane (copyright steora-moonstar)

Hello guys, I am campaigning for £500 from UK in order to help protect 28 red-crown crane families in North-east China.

There are 28 red-crown crane families live and breeding every year in Weiyuchang, Lindian County, Daqing, Heilongjiang Province, China (黑龙江省大庆市林甸县育苇场) (47.082718, 124.462325). They suffer from egg-picking and animal trapping. Their eggs are picked and sold to business men with £20 each, and their chicks are at risk of taken and trained for animal performance.

Mr FU Jianguo, a ranger, also the local head of forest protection station, started working in 1984, is trying to protect cranes in his spare time. He bought part of the lease from the wetland from the freeholder for one year, forbid egg-picker to enter in order to protect cranes. In the breeding season of 2014, in his lease area, one crane family successfully bread one chick.

After the breeding season (March to June), Mr Fu sublet the land to local fishermen to cover the cost for the lease.

Now Mr Fu wants to buy the entire lease for year 2015 to protect 28 crane families. He is 150,000 CNY(about £15,000) short for the rest lease for year 2015. He wants to borrow £500 from 30 individual for one year. By the end of the term, he wants to pay the money back. There is possible interest paid If there were interests made after subletting the land.

The closing date for buying the lease is 20 November 2014

I found this information on Weibo from a Chinese NGO Nature University. Nature University runs the compaign in China, and so far (7 November 2014), 19 individual have lent the money. 11 individual needed.

Contact person

Borrower: Mr FU Jianguo

  • +86 15645927702
  • fjg3323965@163.com
  • Bank Account:6216615300007299511
  • Branch:中国银行大庆开发区支行营业部(KaifaDistrict Branch, Daqing
  • Chinese Paypal(支付宝):15645927702

Guarantor: Mr FENG Yongfeng, Founder of Nature University

  • +86 18612001135
  • hebinews@126.com

Enquiries: Ms HU Chunmei

  • +86 18518191918
  • 410594127@qq.com

We, a British and Chinese couple, Oscar and Siyuan, contacted Mr FU Jianguo, Ms HU Chunmei, guarantor FENG Guofeng, of Nature University, established more details about this project and verify it.

We found out the exact location of this wetland, confirmed that international environmental organisations are welcome to donate funds and communicate with Nature University

We want to fundraise £500 to adopt one crane family, hoping that we could make contribution for protecting crane, the symbolic birds for long life, loyal and fortune in Chinese and Japanese culture.

Do you want to make contribution for this project?

What can you do to support this project?

Deadline: November 20th 2014 to buy the lease for one year

Contact me: Siyuan HUANG

  • hsiyuan1816@gmail.com (for International)
  • zmdhsy@yeah.net (for China)

英国的常见鸟类

在我住的附近有个公园,从客厅的窗户就可以望到公园里面,公园的树枝在夏天甚至可以伸展到窗户附近。O君和我在公园的栅栏上挂了几个birdfeeder,早上的时候,就能看到鸟儿们在feeder附近跳上跳下。

我们总共挂了6个feeder,其中两个装fatball,是一种油脂和各类种子虫子混合而成的圆球还不怕水,网口很大,大鸟小鸟都能啄食不会被卡住;一个是方形的装长方体形状的食物,网口中等;另外两个是食物的周围由笼子状的围着,用来防止松鼠偷吃;最后一个的网眼最小仅供小鸟啄食,陶制的顶部,可以防止雨水落入,底部有道窄窄的边缘,里面的种子可以掉落出来,有时候被风吹到地上,大鸟也可以找到。

Feeder附近最常见的是很小的雀类。Blue Tit(蓝山雀),它们可以倒挂在feeder上,灵活地跳上跳下。有时候它们成对出现,又迅速飞走,警觉性很高。Blue tit从头顶到北部泛着蓝色,腹部是黄色,非常显眼。Great tit(大山雀)和coal tit(煤山雀)也会出现,它们长得很像,大小也差不多。Great tit的头部顶端全部是黑色的,背部和前胸还有一些黄色;Coal tit头部则是黑白相间,跟badger(獾)的头部颜色很像,所以又叫badger head,并且Coal tit的背部更暗,呈褐色。偶尔会有一两只long-tailed tit(银喉长尾山雀)出现,是其中最小的一种,它们白色的头部中嵌着黑芝麻大小的眼睛。它们的尾巴比前几种tit都长,也因此而得名。

还有一种很常见的鸟是Robin(知更鸟)。即使没有feeder在那里,robin也经常在人类活动的范围附近找吃的,并不怕人。在圣诞节其间,经常能看到robin鸟的装饰。它比tit们稍大一些,腿稍长,只能挺身站立在枝头或者栏杆上,没法倒挂。也因为此,我们摆下的feeder的形状和位置并不适合它们。但是它们也偶尔站在靠近feeder的栅栏或者树枝上啄食一两口,有时候还跳到那个陶制的feeder上,不停地扇动翅膀来保持平衡,啄到些种子。更多时候它们是在地上找掉下来的食物。Robin鸟的前胸到面部都是红色的,这是最引人注意的颜色,并且叫声也非常好听,在英国各地很常见。

另一种常见的鸟类是blackbird(乌鶇)和wood pigeon(林鸽)。它们比tit们大很多,但是还是没有鸽子大。blackbird通常全身黑色,除了眼眶和嘴是橘红色,雌性的blackbird黑色稍淡,更偏褐色。它们对方形的feeder更感兴趣,其中一只敢于尝试的雌blackbird站在附近的树枝上吃到了feeder里的食物。而林鸽则只能是望食物兴叹,它们的腿太粗短身子太胖,很难平衡在细小的树枝和栅栏上,也只是在feeder附近热闹的时候,找到些掉落下来的种子。

有一次我把那个陶制的feeder挂在离公园栅栏不远的树枝上,隔了一两天几只林鸽注意到了。纷纷停在附近的树枝或者铁栅栏较粗的柱子上,仍然够不着,就飞走了。但其中一只从柱子试图沿着栅栏的顶端走到feeder附近。铁丝做成的栅栏网,它真的在走钢丝。开始的一两天它每天早上来尝试,但总是无法保持平衡。后来过了三五天,它已经可以慢慢走到里feeder的食物足够的距离啄食了,并且保持平衡。我们看着它那段时间每天早上飞来,先是停到柱子上,然后沿着铁丝走到feeder附近,开始享用早餐。

英国的城市和镇上总是有很多鸽子,城市中的鸽子是一般的鸽子,通常住在建筑物附近,脖子处有蓝色和紫色的反光,翅膀上也会有花纹。而公园附近的林鸽通常居住在树上,脖子附近有道白色的花纹,翅膀只是简单的灰色,没有花纹。鸽子在英国很常见,也是那些bird of pray(猛禽)捕猎的对象。

在feeder附近常常来碰运气的鸟类很多,海鸥,乌鸦,Jackdaw(寒鸦),喜鹊。有时候扔些面包在栅栏附近,一只海鸥发现了,一群海鸥就会紧跟着抢。早上的时候看到一直海鸥停在路上,试图吞掉一块面包,但是那块面包对它来说太大太硬,它差点被噎到,不得不放下,随后一群海鸥涌上来抢夺,场面一度混乱,最后面包被抢成了两小块,总算能顺利吃下去。乌鸦和Jackdaw通常会在傍晚的时候成群结队地停在树梢或者房顶,它们会很吵闹,不停地叫,像吵架一样。喜鹊偶尔会出现,枝头或地面上,有时候跳到树梢,今年的冬天很少听到它们。

公园里还有一些很神秘的鸟,并不珍稀但需要费力才能找到。春天的时候啄木鸟drumming,像打鼓一样啄出一连串的声响,来吸引异性。冬天的时候树叶掉光,能在树干和树杈中偶尔看到他们的身影。公园里的是大斑啄木鸟,背部几乎全部被黑色覆盖,下腹部有一块大红色,雄性啄木鸟的后脑勺有一块红色,而雌性没有。它们跟Blackbird差不多大,却可以吃到feeder里的食物。在深秋的晚上,还会听到猫头鹰的叫声,“呜──呜呜,呜──呜呜”,那是Tawny Owl特有的叫声。

这些鸟几乎都不怎么迁徙,一年四季长居,一天的某个时候,总能碰到或听到它们。像个邻居一样,挺好。

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